Almost seven years after the 2010-11 uprisings, the Arab armies face new threats and tasks. Polarization marks the Middle Eastern system of power, driven by the Saudi-Iranian rivalry for regional hegemony. The fall of the “Caliphate” as territorial entity poses question marks regarding security governance in post-Daesh areas. In 2011, the armies were decisive actors for regime change, continuity or counter-revolution: but what happened later? How they adapted or not to this demanding scenario? Does military cooperation increase among the Arab armies? What kind of relation between the military and the rise of non-state armed actors? Willing to fill a research vacuum, this ISPI Dossier provides six case-studies and sheds light on current military reform paths followed by the Arab armies, decrypting trends and differences.